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Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), called ineffective hematopoiesis is indicated by bone marrow failure and tendency to acute myeloid leukemia transformation. Since the disease is more common in elderly with non- hematology co-morbidities, the research for less toxic and curative novel agents is essential. More than 12 years without new Food and Drug Administration approved drugs in MDS management through the whole course, only 5 drugs. We summarized the basic data in diagnosis, treatment guidelines and future direction.