Therapeutic options for ampullary carcinomas. A review
Ampullary Carcinoma arises from a histologically heterogeneous region where three different epithelia converge. Even though Ampullary Carcinoma has a superior prognosis compared to pancreatic and biliary ductal neoplasms, at least half of the patients turn up at an advanced stage that limits the treatment prospects. In addition to surgery for early-stage disease, several studies have shown that chemoradiotherapy confers additional benefits in the management of Ampullary Carcinoma. Analogously, chemotherapy plays a crucial role in treating advanced Ampullary Carcinoma with distant metastasis/recurrences. Although, stage of the disease, lymph node status, and histo-morphology are three critical prognostic variables, recently much attention is being placed on the genetic landscape of Ampullary Carcinoma. In this review, we have discussed various studies describing the role of chemoradiation and chemotherapy in the treatment of early and advanced stage Ampullary Carcinoma. Also, we have summarized the molecular landscape of Ampullary Carcinoma and the novel therapeutic strategies which could possibly target the genetic alterations involving the tumor cells.
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Copyright (c) 2019 Dileep Kumar Reddy Regalla, Rojymon Jacob, Ashish Manne, Ravi Kumar Paluri
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