Oncology Reviews 2018-06-18T20:18:15+02:00 Paola Granata Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Oncology Reviews</strong> is an Open Access, peer-reviewed, international journal that publishes authoritative state-of-the-art reviews on preclinical and clinical aspects of oncology.</p> <p>The journal provide up-to-date information on the latest achievements in different fields of oncology for both practising clinicians and basic researchers. <strong>Oncology Reviews</strong> aims at being international in scope and readership, as reflected also by its Editorial Board, gathering the world leading experts in both pre-clinical research and everyday clinical practice.</p> <p>The journal is open for publication of supplements, monothematic issues and for publishing abstracts of scientific meetings; conditions can be obtained from the Editor-in-Chief or the publisher.</p> <p>The journal was previously published by Springer Italy; since 2012 <strong>Oncology Reviews</strong> passed to PAGEPress. <strong>Oncology Reviews</strong> is completely free, as it is supported by private funds.</p> Time to tame necroptosis - viable combat against chemo resistant oral cancer cells 2018-06-18T20:18:11+02:00 Samapika Routray <p>Till 1998, a little was known about alternative forms of regulated cell death beside apoptosis. In present scenario, accumulating evidences suggest a form of programmed necrosis called Necroptosis which can be induced by various external stimuli including anticancer drugs, ionizing radiation, photodynamic therapy in the form of death domain receptor (DR) engagement by their respective ligands, TNF-alpha, Fas ligand (FasL) and TRAIL, under apoptosis deficient condition (caspase inhibitor), <em>etc</em>. receptor interacting protein-1 (RIP-1), a death domain containing kinase is the key molecule in necroptotic cell death pathway. On interaction with an additional protein RIP-3 to form an intracellular complex (complex-IIb), it triggers the various downstream mechanisms of necroptosis which includes: i) excessive production reactive oxygen species (ROS) as RIP-3 interacts with metabolic enzymes (glycogen phosphorylase, glutamate dehydrogenase) which increases the concentration of substrates for oxidative phophorylation - a major source of ROS; ii) mitochondrial dysfunction (mitrochondrial permeability transition ). Necrostatin (Nec-1) and CYLD act as negative and positive regulators for this mode of cell death.<br>TNF the master pro-inflammatory cytokine has been known to either promote gene activation or to induce RIPK1 kinase-dependent cell death, in the form of apoptosis or necroptosis. Autophagy has also been proposed as an execution mechanism for necroptosis. There is growing evidence of impairment of necroptosis in tumerogenesis of various human cancers such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia, epidermal cancer and non Hodgkins lymphoma.<br>As conventional anticancer drugs are usually apoptosis inducers, the development of apoptosis resistant cell clones is inevitable owing to cancer heterogeneity and mutation leading to failure of standard chemotherapy. It is a known fact that triggering necroptosis could be an alternative way to eradicate apoptosis-resistant cancer cells. Development of a new class of anticancer drug targeting this alternative pathway of the cell death is the need of the hour. Few <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> studies have been conducted showing excellent anti-tumor effect in both drug sensitive and resistant cases by targeting different modulators of necroptotic pathway: i) shikonin-a naturally occurring naphthoquinone showed prompt but profound anti-tumor effect on both primary and metastatic tumor <em>i.e.</em> cancer cell lines and osteosarcoma by inducing RIPK1 and RIPK3 dependent necroptosis; ii) staurosporine-generally accepted inducer of intrinsic apoptotic pathway and it is a wide spectrum inhibitor of protein kinases. It can induce necroptosis in caspase compromised conditions; iii) deoxypodophyllotoxin - a naturally occurring microtubule destabilizer successfully induced necroptosis in both drug sensitive and drug resistant cancer cell lines; iv) targeting Nec-1, a specific inhibitor of necroptosis can help in inducing necroptosis to enhance the radiosensitivity of cancer cells. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) is known to induces both Nec-1 inhibition and FLIPS regulation-mediated apoptosis/necroptosis; v) obatoclax induces the interaction of p62 with RIP1K, RIP3K and FADD, key components of the necrosome and can mediate cell death in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells via autophagy-dependent necroptosis.<br>Despite the rigorous implement of conventional therapies, increased number of refractory cases is unavoidable due to acquired resistance of cancer cells, badly affecting survival rate of OSCC. Additional knowledge about the mechanisms of cancer drug resistance and development of novel targeted therapy using alternative pathway of cell death and less susceptible to known resistance mechanisms <em>i.e.</em> necroptosis-based cancer therapy may help in designing effective anticancer strategies for OSCC .</p> 2018-03-27T10:38:08+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Post-transcriptional regulation of microRNAs in cancer: From prediction to validation 2018-06-18T20:18:10+02:00 Sheril June Ankasha Mohamad Nasir Shafiee Norhazlina Abdul Wahab Raja Affendi Raja Ali Norfilza Mohd Mokhtar <p>MicroRNA (miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA with an established function to regulate genes at the post-transcriptional level leading to suppression or degradation of its messenger RNA expression (mRNA). Its dysregulation plays a vital role in a variety of biological and pathological processes including cancer. A lot of algorithms have been established to predict the target sites of miRNA, but experimentally identifying and validating its target region is still lacking. Guidance in experimental procedures is really needed to find genuine miRNA targets. Therefore, in this review, we provide an outline on the workflow in predicting and validating the targeted sites of miRNA using several methods as a guideline for the scientists. The final outcome of this type of experiment is essential to explore the major impact of miRNAmRNA interaction involved in the biological processes and to assist miRNA-based drug development in the future.</p> 2018-05-11T17:08:58+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Cancer oriented biobanks: A comprehensive review 2018-06-18T20:18:10+02:00 Shankargouda Patil Barnali Majumdar Kamran Habib Awan Gargi S. Sarode Sachin C. Sarode Amol R. Gadbail Shailesh Gondivkar <p>Biobanks provide a platform for innovative biomedical research and has improvised translational and personalized medicine to a great extent. Time 2009 published <em>10 ideas changing the world right now</em> with biobanks on the list emphasizing its role in discovery and development of new therapeutic drugs. They form the cornerstone, providing resources for future investigations and biomarker discovery to understand the effects of genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors on human morbidity, mortality and health. The aim of this review paper is to understand the role of biobanking in cancer research, the challenges faced and strategies to overcome these, for long term and sustainable research in the field of oncology.</p> 2018-05-11T17:46:55+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## HER3 signaling and targeted therapy in cancer 2018-06-18T20:18:09+02:00 Rosalin Mishra Hima Patel Samar Alanazi Long Yuan Joan T. Garrett <p>ERBB family members including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) also known as HER1, ERBB2/HER2/Neu, ERBB3/HER3 and ERBB4/HER4 are aberrantly activated in multiple cancers and hence serve as drug targets and biomarkers in modern precision therapy. The therapeutic potential of HER3 has long been underappreciated, due to impaired kinase activity and relatively low expression in tumors. However, HER3 has received attention in recent years as it is a crucial heterodimeric partner for other EGFR family members and has the potential to regulate EGFR/HER2-mediated resistance. Upregulation of HER3 is associated with several malignancies where it fosters tumor progression via interaction with different receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Studies also implicate HER3 contributing significantly to treatment failure, mostly through the activation of PI3K/AKT, MAPK/ERK and JAK/STAT pathways. Moreover, activating mutations in HER3 have highlighted the role of HER3 as a direct therapeutic target. Therapeutic targeting of HER3 includes abrogating its dimerization partners’ kinase activity using small molecule inhibitors (lapatinib, erlotinib, gefitinib, afatinib, neratinib) or direct targeting of its extracellular domain. In this review, we focus on HER3-mediated signaling, its role in drug resistance and discuss the latest advances to overcome resistance by targeting HER3 using mono- and bispecific antibodies and small molecule inhibitors.</p> 2018-05-16T17:09:19+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The role of pemetrexed in recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer: A scoping review 2018-06-18T20:18:14+02:00 Michael Roche Laura Parisi Linda Li Amy Knehans Rebecca Phaeton Joshua P. Kesterson <p>Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of mortality among gynecologic malignancies, with most cases diagnosed at an advanced stage. Despite an initial response, most develop a recurrence and subsequent resistance to standard therapies. Pemetrexed (Alimta<sup>TM</sup>) is a new generation multi-targeted antifolate initially approved for the treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma. In recent years, it has shown promise in the treatment of recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer. In this review, we outline the current literature and discuss the future of pemetrexed in the setting of recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer.</p> 2018-03-21T12:29:32+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The impact of Mir-9 regulation in normal and malignant hematopoiesis 2018-06-18T20:18:12+02:00 Abbas Khosravi Shaban Alizadeh Arsalan Jalili Reza Shirzad Najmaldin Saki <p>MicroRNA-9 (MiR-9) dysregulation has been observed in various cancers. Recently, MiR-9 is considered to have a part in hematopoiesis and hematologic malignancies. However, its importance in blood neoplasms is not yet well defined. Thus, this study was conducted in order to assess the significance of MiR-9 role in the development of hematologic neoplasia, prognosis, and treatment approaches. We have shown that a large number of MiR-9 targets (such as FOXOs, SIRT1, CCND1, ID2, CCNG1, Ets, and NFkB) play essential roles in leukemogenesis and that it is overexpressed in different leukemias. Our findings indicated MiR-9 downregulation in a majority of leukemias. However, its overexpression was reported in patients with dysregulated MiR-9 controlling factors (such as MLLr). Additionally, prognostic value of MiR-9 has been reported in some types of leukemia. This study generally emphasizes on the critical role of MiR-9 in hematologic malignancies as a prognostic factor and a therapeutic target.</p> 2018-03-27T10:26:23+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Saudi anti-human cancer plants database (SACPD): A collection of plants with anti-human cancer activities 2018-06-18T20:18:13+02:00 Ateeq Ahmed Al-Zahrani <p>Several anticancer drugs have been developed from natural products such as plants. Successful experiments in inhibiting the growth of human cancer cell lines using Saudi plants were published over the last three decades. Up to date, there is no Saudi anticancer plants database as a comprehensive source for the interesting data generated from these experiments. Therefore, there was a need for creating a database to collect, organize, search and retrieve such data. As a result, the current paper describes the generation of the Saudi anti-human cancer plants database (SACPD). The database contains most of the reported information about the naturally growing Saudi anticancer plants. SACPD comprises the scientific and local names of 91 plant species that grow naturally in Saudi Arabia. These species belong to 38 different taxonomic families. In Addition, 18 species that represent16 family of medicinal plants and are intensively sold in the local markets in Saudi Arabia were added to the database. The website provides interesting details, including plant part containing the anticancer bioactive compounds, plants locations and cancer/cell type against which they exhibit their anticancer activity. Our survey revealed that breast, liver and leukemia were the most studied cancer cell lines in Saudi Arabia with percentages of 27%, 19% and 15%, respectively. The current SACPD represents a nucleus around which more development efforts can expand to accommodate all future submissions about new Saudi plant species with anticancer activities. SACPD will provide an excellent starting point for researchers and pharmaceutical companies who are interested in developing new anticancer drugs. SACPD is available online at <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"></a></p> 2018-03-26T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Punica granatum (Pomegranate) activity in health promotion and cancer prevention 2018-06-18T20:18:15+02:00 Shahindokht Bassiri-Jahromi Cancer has become one of the most fatal diseases in most countries. In spite of the medical care developing, cancer still remains a significant problem. The majority of the cancers are resistant to treatment. Thus, the research for novel, more efficient and less side effect treatment methods continues. Pomegranate contains strong antioxidant activity, with potential health interests. Research concern in pomegranate is increasing because of their anticancer potential due to possess rich in polyphenols. We highlight the pomegranate potential health benefits and mechanism of cancer progression inhibition. Pomegranate has indicated antiproliferative, anti-metastatic and anti-invasive effects on different cancer cell line <em>in vitro,</em> <em>in vivo</em> and clinical trial. The aim of this review is to evaluate functional properties and the medical benifits of pomegranate against various cancer diseases. In addition, pomegranate properties in <em>in vitro</em> and <em>in vivo</em> experimental human and animal clinical trials and its future use are explored. The available data suggest that <em>Punica granatum</em> (pomegranate) might be used in the control and potential therapeutic for some disease conditions and benefits human health status. This review summarizes <em>in vitro</em>, <em>in vivo</em> and clinical trial studies highlighting the pomegranate role in prevent and treatment of breast, prostate, lung, colon, skin and hepatocellular cell cancers. 2018-01-30T11:06:47+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##