Clear-cell renal cell carcinoma - A comprehensive review of agents used in the contemporary management of advanced/metastatic disease

  • Stavros Gkolfinopoulos | staurosgk@gmail.com 2nd Propaedeutic Dept. of Internal Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, ATTIKON University Hospital, Athens, Greece.
  • Amanda Psyrri 2nd Propaedeutic Dept. of Internal Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, ATTIKON University Hospital, Athens, Greece.
  • Aristotelis Bamias 2nd Propaedeutic Dept. of Internal Medicine, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, ATTIKON University Hospital, Athens, Greece. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5996-7262

Abstract

Renal cell carcinoma represents the most common malignancy of the kidney and the majority of cases are categorized as clear cell carcinomas. The elucidation of the specific alterations in key molecular and metabolic pathways responsible for cancer development and progression have prompted the rationalization of our classification of this disease and have provided specific targetable molecules implicated in carcinogenesis. Although immunotherapy has been an established option in the treatment of metastatic renal cell cancer for many years, its role has been renewed and upgraded with the implementation of anti-angiogenic agents and immune checkpoint inhibitors in our treatment armamentarium. The future holds promise, as newer agents become available and combination regimens of immunotherapy with anti-angiogenic agents have become the standard of care in the management of metastatic disease and are currently being evaluated in earlier settings. Proper patient selection and individualization of our treatment strategies are of utmost importance in order to provide optimal care to patients suffering from renal cell carcinoma.

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References

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Published
2021-02-26
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Issue
Section
Reviews
Keywords:
Renal cell carcinoma, clear cell, VEGF, mTOR, VHL.
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How to Cite
Gkolfinopoulos, S., Psyrri, A., & Bamias, A. (2021). Clear-cell renal cell carcinoma - A comprehensive review of agents used in the contemporary management of advanced/metastatic disease. Oncology Reviews, 15(1). https://doi.org/10.4081/oncol.2021.530